Microecology of human in health and disease. Mass-spectrometry microbial markers approach
Osipov G.A., Bystrova O.V., Vedenin A.N.
N.D.Zelinsky Institute of Organic Chemistry; Interlab; Moscow, Russia; email@example.com
Method of mass spectrometry of microbial markers (MSMM) permits simultaneous determination of more than hundred microbial fatty acids in situ in clinical samples without precultivation and any biochemical test materials and primers. MSMM reveals unprecedented information about quantity of anaerobes and uncultivated aerobes, as well as actinobacteria, yeasts, viruses and microscopic fungi in one sample, and bring to the full understanding of patient microbial etiology in clinical condition. The human microbiota is mostly concentrated in the intestine mucus. Reconstruction of its composition using MSMM displays following microbial density: 7,6 ´ 1010 microbial cells per gram (cells/g) in the jejunum and ileum, 1011 cells/g in the colon, and 2,7 × 1011 cells/g in feces. Feces have the same qualitative composition as the other intestinal regions but differ in relative amount of single genera and species within. There are more bacteroides, clostridia and eubacteria and less bifidobacteria and actinobacteria. MSMM data confirm that anaerobes of Clostridium, Eubacterium, Peptostreptococcus genera, actinobacteria of Streptomyces and Nocardia spp., together with fungi and viruses are mixed infection dominants. Second infection order includes cocci of Pseudomonas spp. and other nonfermenting bacteria such as Enterobacteriaceae spp. MSMM data testify translocation of these microbes in inflammation loci from intestine. It was observed Lactobacillus, Bifidobacterium and Propionibacterium spp. translocation during respiratory diseases, meningitis, peritonitis and synovitis. Quantitative comparison of this microbes markers content in inflamed organs and blood proves their reproduction in locuses. It can be assumed, that microbial translocation is not only due to infection, but also result of healing by means of biofilm formation, which is similar to intestinal one, and induce local stimulation of immunity and protection against pathogens, as well as damaged tissues reparation.